Psilocybin is a member of the tryptamine class of hallucinogens. It is the active compound found in dozens of mushroom species and is responsible for the typical features associated with “shroom” or “magic mushroom” ingestion. Classic effects of psilocybin ingestion are similar to LSD, and include:
- Oceanic boundlessness: the experience of unity while also being boundless
- Visionary restructuralization: auditory and visual distortions and hallucinations
These effects, while each fascinating in their own right, are not the topic of today’s post. Rather today, we’re going to focus on psilocybin’s antidepressant effects.
Psilocybin acts directly on serotonin 5HT-2A receptors. Interestingly, blocking, or antagonizing these receptors leads to improvements in parkinson’s disease-induced psychosis (discussed in a separate blog post here). Psilocybin, acting as an agonist at this same site, appears to have potent antidepressant effects.
Research on psilocybin has shown promise in the treatment of end of life anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and smoking and alcohol dependence. A study from 2008 showed that 14 months after a single dose of psilocybin, greater than half of the participants continued to report an increased sense of wellbeing. Now, in a recent article published in the Lancet, psilocybin has demonstrated preliminary efficacy in the treatment of unipolar (i.e. not bipolar) depression.
Twelve patients (6 women and 6 men) with treatment resistant depression were dosed with two oral doses of psilocybin (10mg and 25mg) 7 days apart. Typical recreational doses of psilocybin range from 10-50mg (i.e. 1-2 grams of dried mushrooms, or 20-30 grams of fresh mushrooms). The participants were dosed in pre-decorated (i.e. low lighting) rooms with music playing through high quality speakers. Patients had psychiatrists sit on either side of them and perform psychological support in the form of check-ins, making sure that the patient experienced a mostly uninterrupted “inner journey.”
Incredibly, at one week and at three months depressive symptoms were markedly reduced. Although clearly not a placebo controlled trial, this study demonstrates significant promise for the future of psilocybin as a treatment for depression and may offer hope for those with treatment resistant depression.